Tag Archives: powershell.org

View Current PowerShell.org Q&A Forum Topics

Note: Update added at the bottom on this post on August, 9, 2016. Please read.

Sometimes you don’t always have the time to finish something you’ve started. For me, it was this function. I pounded this out in a quick few minutes, and while I don’t see myself investing in it any further, I didn’t want to forget the function, and thought I would hang on to it somewhere. Well, that’s why it’s here, especially as someone may find it useful, or helpful.

The function, which I called Get-PowerShell.orgForumTopic, runs out to PowerShell.org and grabs the current topics (page one) from the PowerShell Q&A forum (http://powershell.org/wp/forums/forum/windows-powershell-qa). It only returns the Thread name and the URL, because, well, that’s what seemed useful and relevant at the time I wrote it (which was many months ago).

Function Get-PowerShell.orgForumTopic {
    [CmdletBinding()]
    Param ()

    Begin {
    } # End Begin.

    Process {
        (Invoke-WebRequest -Uri 'http://powershell.org/wp/forums/forum/windows-powershell-qa/' |
            Select-Object -ExpandProperty Links |
            Where-Object {$_.outerHTML -like '*http://powershell.org/wp/forums/topic*'} |
            Select-Object @{N='Thread';E={$_.innerHTML}},@{N='Url';E={$_.href}} |
            Select-Object -First 30)[(0..30 |
                ForEach-Object {
                    If (-not($_ % 2)) {
                        $_
                    }
                 }
            )]
    } # End Process.

    End {
    } # End End.
} # End Function: Get-PowerShell.orgForumTopic

Here’s what the results looked like in the ConsoleHost, near in time to when this post was published.

current-powershell.org-qa-forum-topics-01

While I never added any more to this function, I had some ideas: add the thread status, add the “started by user,” add the user that made the last post, add the number of posts per topic, and allow it to run against other PowerShell.org forum topics. It might’ve also been helpful to include additional pages, if requested by the user of the function, such as adding a -Pages parameter (-Pages 4).

Anyway, here it is. Beside being helpful to see the top PowerShell.org Q&A forum posts at a specific point in time, it’s an interesting example of reading from a webpage, of which I had minimal experience. So yeah, I probably learned something by doing this exercise.

If you want to do the same, then start by running the first command, Invoke-WebRequest -Uri ‘http://powershell.org/wp/forums/forum/windows-powershell-qa/’. Then add the pipe and first Select-Object command and run that. Then add the Where-Object command, and so on. This will allow you to see how I finally got to only returning the “Threads” and “Urls.” Take care.

Update: Since a site redesign at PowerShell.org, this function, no longer functions. I’m not sure that I’ll bother to update it — I don’t get the feeling that it was ever used by anyone — but I’ll keep this post up for anything else it may offer, that may be helpful in learning PowerShell.

Search PowerShell Gallery Module for #Requires Statement

The first part of this post began on PowerShell.org. Start there, unless you already have: http://powershell.org/wp/2015/11/30/search-powershell-gallery-module-for-requires-statement.

Please use the connect.microsoft.com link here, or at the bottom of this post, to up vote my feedback.

Desired State Configuration (DSC) and Just Enough Administration (JEA) are two topics that have recently piqued my interest. This, after becoming involved in Windows PowerShell constrained endpoints, and writing proxy functions, to better control how cmdlets are used. While working with DSC and xJEA (x, as in experimental), I ran up against an error message in the Event Viewer on my Server 2012 R2 target node running Windows Management Framework (WMF) 4.0 (the installation package that contains PowerShell 4.0). Before I get too deeply involved in JEA in WMF 5.0 on Server 2016 — what appears to be constrained endpoints of the past, with the benefits of JEA, but without the need for DSC, and some additional new features — I wanted to ensure I was able to deploy JEA endpoints with DSC, while running WMF 4.0.

Knowing this, the first error message below, makes perfect sense. I downloaded a version of xJEA that had a PowerShell 5.0 requirement, without even knowing it. Instead of moving up to WMF 5.0 to “fix” this, I opted to first get an older version of xJEA and determine if I was able to make it run with a version that can be used on WMF 4.0. This seemed like a logical progression in my learning and understanding of both DSC and JEA. Here’s the error:

“Error Message = The script ‘MSFT_xJeaToolkit.psm1’ cannot be run because it contained a “#requires” statement for Windows PowerShell 5.0. The version of Windows PowerShell that is required by the script does not match the currently running version of Windows PowerShell 4.0.”

As to be expected, the error message that was reported in the console host, was much less helpful. In fact, I was at a total loss until I went hunting in the Event Viewer, where I turned up the previous error message. Here’s the error I saw in the console:

“Invoke-CimMethod : Failed to extract the module from zip file C:\Windows\TEMP\\635842583367244849\xJea_0.2.16.6.zip
downloaded by Download Manager WebDownloadManager.”

In order to determine which version of xJEA didn’t require PowerShell 5.0, I needed to download all the xJEA versions and inspect them. You see, there isn’t a way to find out if there’s a PowerShell version requirement… more on that shortly. To begin, I ensured that the PowerShell Gallery was a trusted repository, and therefore, wouldn’t prompt me when I ran the Save-Module command in an upcoming example. To do this, I ran the commands below to (1) verify if the PowerShell Gallery was trusted (which it wasn’t, and isn’t by default), (2) trust it as an installation source, and (3) verify it was trusted.

PS> Get-PSRepository

Name                      PackageManagementPro InstallationPolicy   SourceLocation
                          vider
----                      -------------------- ------------------   --------------
PSGallery                 NuGet                Untrusted            https://www.powershellgallery.com/api/v2/


PS> Set-PSRepository -Name PSGallery -InstallationPolicy Trusted
PS> Get-PSRepository

Name                      PackageManagementPro InstallationPolicy   SourceLocation
                          vider
----                      -------------------- ------------------   --------------
PSGallery                 NuGet                Trusted              https://www.powershellgallery.com/api/v2/

When that was completed, what I needed was to download all the xJEA modules from the PowerShell Gallery, at once, and place them into a folder for each version. Luckily, the Save-Module cmdlet will handle the file structure. This means, each module (a DSC resource, in this case) will be saved inside a version folder, nested in the same xJea folder. I gave the cmdlet a base path (C:\), and it did the rest. Take a look below at the example and image.

PS> Find-Module -Name xJea -AllVersions |
>> ForEach-Object {Save-Module -Path C:\ -Name xJea -RequiredVersion "$($_.Version.ToString())"}

Search PowerShell Gallery Module for requires01

Once I had all the files downloaded, I needed to run through all the contained .psm1 files for the requires statement for PowerShell version 5.0. The command below returned 51 files where it located the string “requires -version 5.”

PS> (Get-ChildItem -Path C:\xJea -Recurse -Filter '*.psm1' |
>> Get-Content) -match 'requires -version 5' |
>> Select-Object PSPath | Convert-Path
C:\xJea\0.2.10\DSCResources\Library\JeaAccount.psm1
C:\xJea\0.2.10\DSCResources\MSFT_xJeaEndpoint\MSFT_xJeaEndpoint.psm1
C:\xJea\0.2.10\DSCResources\MSFT_xJeaToolkit\MSFT_xJeaToolkit.psm1
C:\xJea\0.2.11\DSCResources\Library\JeaAccount.psm1
C:\xJea\0.2.11\DSCResources\MSFT_xJeaEndpoint\MSFT_xJeaEndpoint.psm1
C:\xJea\0.2.11\DSCResources\MSFT_xJeaToolkit\MSFT_xJeaToolkit.psm1
C:\xJea\0.2.12\DSCResources\Library\JeaAccount.psm1
C:\xJea\0.2.12\DSCResources\MSFT_xJeaEndpoint\MSFT_xJeaEndpoint.psm1
C:\xJea\0.2.12\DSCResources\MSFT_xJeaToolkit\MSFT_xJeaToolkit.psm1
C:\xJea\0.2.13\DSCResources\Library\JeaAccount.psm1
C:\xJea\0.2.13\DSCResources\MSFT_xJeaEndpoint\MSFT_xJeaEndpoint.psm1
C:\xJea\0.2.13\DSCResources\MSFT_xJeaToolkit\MSFT_xJeaToolkit.psm1
C:\xJea\0.2.14\DSCResources\Library\JeaAccount.psm1
C:\xJea\0.2.14\DSCResources\MSFT_xJeaEndpoint\MSFT_xJeaEndpoint.psm1
C:\xJea\0.2.14\DSCResources\MSFT_xJeaToolkit\MSFT_xJeaToolkit.psm1
C:\xJea\0.2.15\DSCResources\Library\JeaAccount.psm1
C:\xJea\0.2.15\DSCResources\MSFT_xJeaEndpoint\MSFT_xJeaEndpoint.psm1
C:\xJea\0.2.15\DSCResources\MSFT_xJeaToolkit\MSFT_xJeaToolkit.psm1
C:\xJea\0.2.16\DSCResources\Library\JeaAccount.psm1
C:\xJea\0.2.16\DSCResources\MSFT_xJeaEndpoint\MSFT_xJeaEndpoint.psm1
C:\xJea\0.2.16\DSCResources\MSFT_xJeaToolkit\MSFT_xJeaToolkit.psm1
C:\xJea\0.2.16.1\DSCResources\Library\JeaAccount.psm1
C:\xJea\0.2.16.1\DSCResources\MSFT_xJeaEndpoint\MSFT_xJeaEndpoint.psm1
C:\xJea\0.2.16.1\DSCResources\MSFT_xJeaToolkit\MSFT_xJeaToolkit.psm1
C:\xJea\0.2.16.2\DSCResources\Library\JeaAccount.psm1
C:\xJea\0.2.16.2\DSCResources\MSFT_xJeaEndpoint\MSFT_xJeaEndpoint.psm1
C:\xJea\0.2.16.2\DSCResources\MSFT_xJeaToolkit\MSFT_xJeaToolkit.psm1
C:\xJea\0.2.16.3\DSCResources\Library\JeaAccount.psm1
C:\xJea\0.2.16.3\DSCResources\MSFT_xJeaEndpoint\MSFT_xJeaEndpoint.psm1
C:\xJea\0.2.16.3\DSCResources\MSFT_xJeaToolkit\MSFT_xJeaToolkit.psm1
C:\xJea\0.2.16.4\DSCResources\Library\JeaAccount.psm1
C:\xJea\0.2.16.4\DSCResources\MSFT_xJeaEndpoint\MSFT_xJeaEndpoint.psm1
C:\xJea\0.2.16.4\DSCResources\MSFT_xJeaToolkit\MSFT_xJeaToolkit.psm1
C:\xJea\0.2.16.5\DSCResources\Library\JeaAccount.psm1
C:\xJea\0.2.16.5\DSCResources\MSFT_xJeaEndpoint\MSFT_xJeaEndpoint.psm1
C:\xJea\0.2.16.5\DSCResources\MSFT_xJeaToolkit\MSFT_xJeaToolkit.psm1
C:\xJea\0.2.16.6\DSCResources\Library\JeaAccount.psm1
C:\xJea\0.2.16.6\DSCResources\MSFT_xJeaEndpoint\MSFT_xJeaEndpoint.psm1
C:\xJea\0.2.16.6\DSCResources\MSFT_xJeaToolkit\MSFT_xJeaToolkit.psm1
C:\xJea\0.2.5\DSCResources\MSFT_xJeaEndpoint\MSFT_xJeaEndpoint.psm1
C:\xJea\0.2.5\DSCResources\MSFT_xJeaToolkit\MSFT_xJeaToolkit.psm1
C:\xJea\0.2.6\DSCResources\MSFT_xJeaEndpoint\MSFT_xJeaEndpoint.psm1
C:\xJea\0.2.6\DSCResources\MSFT_xJeaToolkit\MSFT_xJeaToolkit.psm1
C:\xJea\0.2.7\DSCResources\MSFT_xJeaEndpoint\MSFT_xJeaEndpoint.psm1
C:\xJea\0.2.7\DSCResources\MSFT_xJeaToolkit\MSFT_xJeaToolkit.psm1
C:\xJea\0.2.8\DSCResources\Library\JeaAccount.psm1
C:\xJea\0.2.8\DSCResources\MSFT_xJeaEndpoint\MSFT_xJeaEndpoint.psm1
C:\xJea\0.2.8\DSCResources\MSFT_xJeaToolkit\MSFT_xJeaToolkit.psm1
C:\xJea\0.2.9\DSCResources\Library\JeaAccount.psm1
C:\xJea\0.2.9\DSCResources\MSFT_xJeaEndpoint\MSFT_xJeaEndpoint.psm1
C:\xJea\0.2.9\DSCResources\MSFT_xJeaToolkit\MSFT_xJeaToolkit.psm1

In the next two examples, I haven’t included all the results to save some space. The example below, takes the previous one, and removes the portion of the path to the left of the version number. Compare the last line in the example above with the last line in the example below, and you’ll see how the .Split() method cleaned up the beginning of each result.

PS> (Get-ChildItem -Path C:\xJea -Recurse -Filter '*.psm1' |
>> Get-Content) -match 'requires -version 5' |
>> Select-Object PSPath | Convert-Path |
>> ForEach-Object {$_.Split('\',3)[-1]}
0.2.10\DSCResources\Library\JeaAccount.psm1
0.2.10\DSCResources\MSFT_xJeaEndpoint\MSFT_xJeaEndpoint.psm1
0.2.10\DSCResources\MSFT_xJeaToolkit\MSFT_xJeaToolkit.psm1
0.2.11\DSCResources\Library\JeaAccount.psm1
0.2.11\DSCResources\MSFT_xJeaEndpoint\MSFT_xJeaEndpoint.psm1
0.2.11\DSCResources\MSFT_xJeaToolkit\MSFT_xJeaToolkit.psm1
...
0.2.9\DSCResources\MSFT_xJeaToolkit\MSFT_xJeaToolkit.psm1

In this example, we added a second .Split() method to clean up the path information to the right of the version number. Now, we only have the versions, although we do have duplicates.

PS> (Get-ChildItem -Path C:\xJea -Recurse -Filter '*.psm1' |
>> Get-Content) -match 'requires -version 5' |
>> Select-Object PSPath | Convert-Path |
>> Foreach-Object {$_.Split('\',3)[-1].Split('\')[0]}
0.2.10
0.2.10
0.2.10
0.2.11
0.2.11
0.2.11
..
0.2.9

This example below, shows the full results again; however, each version is only listed one time. This is because we’ve piped the previous results to Select-Object -Unique. This means, for example, we only see 0.2.11 once, even though it appeared three times in the last example.

PS> (Get-ChildItem -Path C:\xJea -Recurse -Filter '*.psm1' |
>> Get-Content) -match 'requires -version 5' |
>> Select-Object PSPath | Convert-Path |
>> ForEach-Object {$_.Split('\',3)[-1].Split('\')[0]} |
>> Select-Object -Unique
0.2.10
0.2.11
0.2.12
0.2.13
0.2.14
0.2.15
0.2.16
0.2.16.1
0.2.16.2
0.2.16.3
0.2.16.4
0.2.16.5
0.2.16.6
0.2.5
0.2.6
0.2.7
0.2.8
0.2.9

We now have a complete list of all the versions that require PowerShell 5.0. That means we can determine which versions will run with PowerShell 4.0.

In this final example, we set a variable, $VersionsRequireWMF5, to the results produced by our last command. These are the versions that require PowerShell 5.0. In the middle of the example below, we set a second variable, $AllVersions, to all the versions of xJEA that we downloaded. We did this by running a Get-ChildItem (think, dir or ls) against the C:\xJea directory and returned just the directory names. That gives us two variables that we can supply to the Compare-Object cmdlet. That cmdlet will tell us the differences between the values of the variables, indicating which versions I can use with WMF 4.0.

PS> $VersionsRequireWMF5 = (Get-ChildItem -Path C:\xJea -Recurse -Filter '*.psm1' | 
>> Get-Content) -match 'requires -version 5' | 
>> Select-Object PSPath | Convert-Path | 
>> ForEach-Object {$_.Split('\',3)[-1].Split('\')[0]} | 
>> Select-Object -Unique
PS>  
PS> $AllVersions = (Get-ChildItem -Path C:\xJea | Select-Object).Name
PS>  
PS> Compare-Object -ReferenceObject $AllVersions -DifferenceObject $VersionsRequireWMF5

InputObject SideIndicator
----------- -------------
0.2         <=
0.2.1       <=
0.2.2       <=
0.2.4       <=

Based on these results, version 0.2, 0.2.1, 0.2.2, and 0.2.4, do not require WMF 5.0 and can be tested with WMF 4.0, before moving to the newer version of WMF. You can expect that I’ll work with 0.2.4 tomorrow morning.

A final note: Microsoft may not yet think they need it, but they should indicate the version of PowerShell that is required by modules on the PowerShell Gallery. That needs to be a part of their approval process, and the results need to added to the web interface, and made a part of the results returned by the Find-Module cmdlet (see the full Find-Module results below). These results should include a Requires property. This isn’t going to be the last time someone comes up against this problem, especially as we move into versions post WMF 5.0.

PS> Find-Module -Name xJea | Select-Object *

Name : xJea
Version : 0.2.16.6
Description : Module with DSC Resources for Just Enough Admin (JEA). Jea makes it simple to create
custom RBAC solutions using PowerShell.
Author : Microsoft Corporation
CompanyName :
Copyright : (c) 2014 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
PublishedDate : 5/14/2015 7:51:23 PM
LicenseUri :
ProjectUri :
IconUri :
Tags : {PSModule, PSIncludes_DscResource}
Includes : {Function, DscResource, Cmdlet, Command}
PowerShellGetFormatVersion :
ReleaseNotes :
Dependencies : {}
RepositorySourceLocation : https://www.powershellgallery.com/api/v2/
Repository : PSGallery
PackageManagementProvider : NuGet

If you think this should be included, then up vote the feedback I’ve left on connect.microsoft.com.

Run Background Commands after Every Command

For a complete introduction to this post, please read the first two paragraphs at PowerShell.org: http://powershell.org/wp/2015/10/12/run-background-commands-after-every-command.

There’s a part II, now. Be sure to read that when you’re done here: http://tommymaynard.com/quick-learn-run-background-commands-after-every-command-part-ii-2015.

You know the prompt, it often looks like this: PS C:\> or this: PS>, or even this [DC05]: PS C:\Users\tommymaynard\Documents>, when you’re interactively remoting to another computer. That built-in function determines the appearance of your prompt. I’ve seen several different modifications of the prompt. You can add the the date and time to the prompt, or like the example in the about_Prompt help file, you can add ‘Hello World’ every time the prompt is displayed. Doable, yes, but helpful, probably not.

This post isn’t about changing the prompt’s appearance, but instead about doing something else inside the prompt function. What the prompt looks like is defined by a function called, prompt — you guessed it. Take a look at your current prompt, as in the example below.

PS> (Get-ChildItem -Path Function:\prompt).ScriptBlock
"PS $($executionContext.SessionState.Path.CurrentLocation)$('>' * ($nestedPromptLevel + 1)) "
# .Link
# http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=225750
# .ExternalHelp System.Management.Automation.dll-help.xml

This is the standard prompt function beginning in PowerShell 3.0 up though PowerShell 5.0, the current version of PowerShell, as of this writing.

This function is invoked each time a command is run and the prompt is displayed again. What if we added additional code inside this function? It would also be run every time a new prompt was displayed. My initial idea was to add the current directory to the WindowTitle. If you don’t know what the WindowTitle is, it’s the text at the top of the console host that says “Administrator: Windows PowerShell,” or “Windows PowerShell,” when in a non-elevated host.

I tried the current directory and quickly realized it took more time to look up at the WindowTitle, from the current prompt, than to leave the default prompt alone and get this information from there. The next idea was to add the date and time to the WindowTitle. This way I would know the time the last prompt was displayed. This is practically the time the last command ended. It seemed useful… for about a minute. I finally decided on putting an indicator in the WindowTitle so that I would know if there were any background jobs or not. I seem to open and close new consoles all day long, and knowing if I was about to dump a console with an active job, whether it was still running or not, or whether it still had data, seemed useful.

Let’s walk though what I did to get this to happen. Before we do that, let’s compare the two images below. The first one shows the standard WindowTitle when there’s no job, and the [Job] indicator when there is a job. We’re going to add a few lines of PowerShell to make this happen.

run-background-commands-after-every-command01run-background-commands-after-every-command02

The first thing I did was to define a function in my profile script ($PROFILE). This function would overwrite the default prompt function, as PowerShell reads in the profile script, after it has already created the default prompt.

Function prompt {

}

Next, I enter the default, prompt text. Notice I’m not changing how the prompt is displayed.

Function Prompt {
    "PS $($executionContext.SessionState.Path.CurrentLocation)$('>' * ($nestedPromptLevel + 1)) "
}

Following this, I added the first piece of conditional logic. We test for a variable called $OriginalTitle. This variable will not exist the first time the prompt function is run, as the variable is created inside this If statement. It effectively ends up holding whatever was in WindowTitle when the console host was first opened. You’ll soon see how we reuse this value.

Before we go on, I should mention that I’ve made this a globally-scoped variable. This is because the variable needs to retain its value outside the function, and it needs to exist each time the function ends. Because of the way scope works, when we enter the function the second time and it can’t find $OriginalText, the function will go up a level and check for the existence of the variable in the parent scope, which in this case is the global scope.

Function Prompt {
    If (-Not($OriginalTitle)) {
        $Global:OriginalTitle = $Host.UI.RawUI.WindowTitle
    }

    "PS $($executionContext.SessionState.Path.CurrentLocation)$('>' * ($nestedPromptLevel + 1)) "
}

In the next part of the function, I added a check to see if the Get-Job cmdlet returns anything. If it does, there are current background jobs, and if it doesn’t, then there are no current background jobs. We’ll start with what happens when there aren’t any jobs, first. In the Else portion of this If-Else statement, we set the current WindowTitle to whatever is stored in the $OriginalTitle variable. This ensures that the WindowTitle looks just like it did when we initially started the console host and there were no background jobs.

Function Prompt {
    If (-Not($OriginalTitle)) {
        $Global:OriginalTitle = $Host.UI.RawUI.WindowTitle
    }

    If (Get-Job) {
        # Coming
    } Else {
        $Host.UI.RawUI.WindowTitle = $OriginalTitle
    }

    "PS $($executionContext.SessionState.Path.CurrentLocation)$('>' * ($nestedPromptLevel + 1)) "
}

So what happens when there are jobs? In this final portion of the function, we have an embedded If statement. If the current WindowTitle doesn’t already include the string [Job], then we add it. If it’s already there, then we leave it alone, and write the prompt.

Function Prompt {
    If (-Not($OriginalTitle)) {
        $Global:OriginalTitle = $Host.UI.RawUI.WindowTitle
    }

    If (Get-Job) {
        If ($Host.UI.RawUI.WindowTitle -NotLike '[Job]*') {
            $Host.UI.RawUI.WindowTitle = "[Job] $OriginalTitle"
        }
    } Else {
        $Host.UI.RawUI.WindowTitle = $OriginalTitle
    }

    "PS $($executionContext.SessionState.Path.CurrentLocation)$('>' * ($nestedPromptLevel + 1)) "
}

Thanks to the prompt function, we have another way to do something the moment the console is opened, and now, every time a new command is entered and a new prompt is displayed in the host. This little project has already got me wondering about some other things I may want to try with this function. I might expand what I’ve done so far, and provide indicators when there’s more than one job ([Job] vs. [Jobs]), if the jobs are still running, and perhaps if they have more data (whether it hasn’t been received yet, or was kept when it was received).

Keep in mind that this function runs after every command, successful or otherwise. Do your best not to overload the actions in the function. The default prompt comes in under a millisecond. My prompt, with the code above added, comes in at an average of 1 millisecond. If you end up doing too much in the function, you might end up waiting longer than you’re used to, making your additions to the function questionable.

Have fun, and thanks to everyone for reading this post.

Return File Sizes in Bytes, KBs, MBs, and GBs, at the Same Time

I scanned a recent forum post on PowerShell.org where the user seemed (again, I scanned it) to want to run some files through Get-ChildItem and Select-Object, and report the size in something other than the bytes default. It didn’t appear he, or she, wanted all the files in one of the measurement groups: B, KB, MB, or GB, but instead in their proper measurement group, dependent on the file’s size.

That may be hard to understand at first read, so let me try and explain it another way. If a file has less than 1,024 bytes, then it should be reported in bytes, if it has 1,024 – 1,048,575 bytes, then it should be reported in Kilobytes, if it has 1,048,576 – 1,073,741,824 bytes then it should be reported Megabytes, and if it has 1,073,741,825 or more bytes, then it should be reported in Gigabytes.

I wrote a long, “one-liner” to do this and have included it, and some sample output, below. I don’t profess to guarantee this doesn’t have any errors, so if you find some, then let me know. In addition, it shows a nice example of a switch statement inside the Expression portion of a calculated property. Fancy.

Get-ChildItem -Path 'C:\test' |
    Select-Object Name,
        @{L='Size';E={
                switch ($_.Length) {
                    # Bytes
                    {$_ -eq 0} {"$('{0:N2}' -f $_) bytes"; break}
                    {$_ -eq 1} {"$('{0:N2}' -f $_) byte"; break}
                    {($_ -gt 1) -and ($_ -le 1023)} {"$('{0:N2}' -f $_) bytes"; break}

                    # Kilobytes
                    {$_ -eq 1024} {"$('{0:N2}' -f ($_/1KB)) Kilobyte"; break}
                    {($_ -gt 1024) -and ($_ -le 1048575)} {"$('{0:N2}' -f ($_/1KB)) Kilobytes"; break}

                    # Megabytes
                    {$_ -eq 1048576} {"$('{0:N2}' -f ($_/1MB)) Megabyte"; break}
                    {($_ -gt 1048576) -and ($_ -le 1073741824)} {"$('{0:N2}' -f ($_/1MB)) Megabytes"; break}

                    # Gigabytes
                    {$_ -eq 1073741825} {"$('{0:N2}' -f ($_/1GB)) Gigabyte"; break}
                    {$_ -gt 1073741825} {"$('{0:N2}' -f ($_/1GB)) Gigabytes"; break}

                    default {Write-Warning -Message 'Unknown Error.'}
                }
            }
        } | Format-Table -AutoSize

Name           Size
----           ----
My-A-File.txt  1.00 byte
My-A-File2.txt 445.00 bytes
My-B-File.txt  1.00 Kilobyte
My-B-File2.txt 1.30 Kilobytes
My-C-File.txt  2.09 Megabytes
My-D-File.txt  3.59 Gigabytes

I can easily see how someone might want to remove the singular vs. plural: Kilobyte vs. Kilobytes, and just use B, KB, MB, and GB, and so…

Update: I gave this some more thought today, and I really didn’t feel like it was okay to not include a modified version that uses abbreviations (B, KB, MB, GB) instead of the full words, as in the previous example. It has removed some complexity, as well, as you can see below.

Get-ChildItem -Path 'C:\test' |
    Select-Object Name,
        @{L='Size';E={
                switch ($_.Length) {
                    # Bytes
                    {($_ -ge 0) -and ($_ -le 1023)} {"$('{0:N2}' -f $_) B"; break}

                    # Kilobytes
                    {($_ -ge 1024) -and ($_ -le 1048575)} {"$('{0:N2}' -f ($_/1KB)) KB"; break}

                    # Megabytes
                    {($_ -ge 1048576) -and ($_ -le 1073741824)} {"$('{0:N2}' -f ($_/1MB)) MB"; break}

                    # Gigabytes
                    {$_ -ge 1073741825} {"$('{0:N2}' -f ($_/1GB)) GB"; break}

                    default {Write-Warning -Message 'Unknown Error.'}
                }
            }
        } | Format-Table -AutoSize

Name           Size
----           ----
My-A-File.txt  1.00 B
My-A-File2.txt 445.00 B
My-B-File.txt  1.00 KB
My-B-File2.txt 1.30 KB
My-C-File.txt  2.09 MB
My-D-File.txt  3.59 GB

Extra – PowerShell Summit North America 2015

This series of posts was linked from PowerShell.org: https://powershell.org/2015/05/16/whats-it-like-at-powershell-summit/.

I decided in late February that I would document my trip and experience at the PowerShell Summit North America 2015 (that happens in April). This page is going to serve as the landing page for this project. I’ll link each of the new posts right from this post, so they can easily be read in chronological order (beginning at the bottom link), providing someone wants to do that, or reads any of this anyway. I truly believe this is going to be an incredible opportunity, and so I want to document my experience, and make it available to the PowerShell community, current and future. Thanks, and enjoy.

PowerShell Summit North America 2015 [#8]: Day Three
April 22, 2015

PowerShell Summit North America 2015 [#7]: Day Two
April 21, 2015

PowerShell Summit North America 2015 [#6]: Day One
April 20, 2015

PowerShell Summit North America 2015 [#5]: In Flight
April 19, 2015

PowerShell Summit North America 2015 [#4]: Closest
April 18, 2015

PowerShell Summit North America 2015 [#3]: Closer
April 13, 2015

PowerShell Summit North America 2015 [#2]: Close
April 10, 2015

PowerShell Summit North America 2015 [#1]: It’s So Far Away
February 22, 2015

PowerShell Resolutions 2015

I read a recent Boe Prox tweet in regards to PowerShell resolutions for the coming year. I carry around with me a mental list of things I want to do, learn, and accomplish, in PowerShell. Although they are often thought about, I had simply never considered making them resolutions, but I suppose that during this time of the year, I should.

While 2014 was a great year for me and PowerShell, there’s just no way it could be better than 2015. I began to write down my list after reading Boe’s, and I’ve decided that I should post and share mine, as well. Perhaps this will be motivational; perhaps I’ll use this as my official checklist. If PowerShell is important to you and your career, then you should start thinking about, and maybe writing down, your PowerShell resolutions, too.

I can honestly say that I became successful with PowerShell the moment I required myself to learn at least one thing about PowerShell — no matter how small — per day. That, in addition to not allowing myself to get discouraged when I didn’t understand something at my first exposure, has been how I crammed so much knowledge into my brain in the last year. I remember searching Twitter for things to read and learn from, and that folks, is why there’s a tommymaynard.com. Anyway, on to my resolutions:

– Continue to help (and learn) on various PowerShell forums including: Reddit, Microsoft Technet, and PowerShell.org.
Update 1: As of May 2015, and I’m still reading and assisting on the various PowerShell forums.
Update 2: It’s December 2015 and I didn’t slow down on helping (and indirectly learning), by assisting on PowerShell forums which included all of those listed above.

– Continue to blog at tommymaynard.com and share my posts on Twitter, and possibly other outlets.
Update 1: As of May 2015, and I’m still producing a fair amount of original content and sharing it on Twitter: https://twitter.com/hashtag/powershell?f=realtime
Update 2: As of August 2015, I linked my first post on the Facebook PowerShell Page.
Update 3: I wrote 61 posts in 2015 — wow!

– Come up with a second submission for the PowerShell.org TechLetter Newsletter.
Note: First submission has been “lined up for publishing,” but has yet to be included—come on January 2015!
Update 1: 1st submission included in January 2015 TechLetter.
Update 2: While this wasn’t a submission to the TechLetter, my series of posts about the PowerShell Summit North America 2015 were linked in the May 2015 TechLetter and on PowerShell.org itself (before just anyone was able to blog on PowerShell.org).
Update 3: I submitted an article for the PowerShell.org TechLetter in hopes to win a 4-day pass to the PowerShell & DevOps Summit 2016. I indicated to run it whether I win, or not. So, perhaps that will show up.

– Express my interest in being a PowerShell.org, TechLetter Editor.
Note: May be mentioned on PowerShell.org in January 2015.
Update: This was never mentioned again by PowerShell.org (in which I’m aware).

– Learn more about, and begin working with, DSC.
Note: First two DSC servers built on December 12, 2014.
Update 1: I’m still working on DSC, but not as much as I would have wanted to by now. There’s still time in the year, and so I plan to return to it soon (May 2015).
Update 2: I took a chance on DSC and good thing I did. My employer heard about Just Enough Administration and wants a Proof of Concept. I’m still working on that…

– Attend, and learn as much as possible from the North America PowerShell Summit 2015.
-and-
– Make PowerShell community contacts (network).
Update: Done and done, and it was awesome.

– Take and Pass the Verified Effective PowerShell exam.
Note: After North America PowerShell Summit 2015.
Update 1: The Verified Effective PowerShell exam is gone.
Update 2: It’s back on, but the test is only offered at the PowerShell Summit 2015: I’m registered!
Update 3: I didn’t pass, that I know of, but I haven’t actually checked. I should probably track down that link. Anyway, I could have completed the test, but there just wasn’t enough time.

– Submit PowerShell presentation abstract for IT conference at (name redacted).
-and, possibly-
– Lead a PowerShell, conference presentation.
Update: My abstract wasn’t ready in time. Even so, I’m not sure this is the right conference for this topic. We’ll see what next year brings.

– Start (name redacted) PowerShell Users Group.
Update: This didn’t happen, but I like the chances I can get something going in the coming year.

– Continue to work toward PowerShell.org Hero, and Microsoft PowerShell MVP.*
Update: I think I’ve done a good deal to help the community, but only time will tell. I’m definitely better off than I was a year ago. I know so much more now, and have no desire to stop. I still love to write about, and help people learn, Windows PowerShell.

* I feel like I should say something about these goals. I’ve read it a time, or two now: “I didn’t set out to be an MVP…” For me, I’m not afraid to openly admit that I want recognition within the PowerShell community. The thing is, if I can line myself up with these recognition programs, then I have proof of what I set out to do from the beginning — help teach PowerShell to those seeking to learn. So sure, I want to be successful, in helping others succeed.