Tag Archives: Set-Alias

Script Sharing – Functions and Code from My Profile

Over the last couple of years, my profile ($PROFILE) has filled up with a bunch of little functions that I use to help shave seconds off my day. I’ve shared a few in other posts, but here’s a few more that I’ve yet to share, that might be interesting. As a forewarning, in many of these, I understand that there may be a better way to do things.

This first one uses Google to show me the definition of a word. It isn’t written to return results to the Windows PowerShell console, but instead will launch the definition in a web browser. It was good enough at the time, and still is on a occasion (when I don’t actually know what a word means ;)) .

Set-Alias -Name lookup -Value Get-Definition
Function Get-Definition {
    Param (
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
        [string]$Word
    )
        Start-Process "https://www.google.com/?gws_rd=ssl#q=define:$Word"
}

Here’s an example I just used today, when I read Don Jones’ post about Jeffrey Snover’s promotion to Technical Fellow: http://donjones.com/2015/09/02/congratulations-jsnover-a-well-earned-honor.

Functions and Code from my Profile ($PROFILE)01

And, because why not, here’s a photo of Jeffrey Snover and me. For those of you new to PowerShell, I’m on the right; Snover, PowerShell’s inventor, is on the left. Thanks to PowerShell.org and Will for the photo.

Me and Snover (front)

This next inclusion isn’t a function, but has turned out to be quite helpful. I recently posted it on Twitter. By entering the alias “snip” into the console, I’m able to quickly open the snipping tool. In fact, I just used the alias to grab the screen capture, for the Get-Definition function, above.

Set-Alias -Name snip -Value "$env:SystemRoot\system32\SnippingTool.exe"

Here’s a screen capture of the Snipping Tool program.

Functions-and-Code-from-my-Profile-PROFILE02

This next one is also not a function, but extremely helpful, and likely to be some of the oldest code in my profile. This, while quite small, saves me all the time. Here’s how it works: When the PowerShell console opens, it checks the title bar — the WindowsTitle — for any left or right square brackets: this [, or this ]. If it doesn’t find them, it then modifies the WindowsTitle to include my computer’s name inside square brackets. It is extremely handy to be able to quickly verify that I’m typing in to the console on my machine and not inside a console on a RDP session. Yes, I still RDP for some things, and yes, I will also, at times, open a PowerShell console inside the RDP session (as strange as that may be).

# Set Console Window Title
If (-not($Host.UI.RawUI.WindowTitle -like "*`[*`]*")) {
    $Host.UI.RawUI.WindowTitle += " [$($env:COMPUTERNAME)]"
}

Since I’ll occasionally take and upload screen captures (see the first example, above), I wanted a quick way to remove my edited WindowsTitle, so it didn’t show my computer’s name. That gave way to this micro function to return the WindowsTitle to its default (yes, it’s hard coded) — my console is always elevated (however, the log on to my computer is not). I suppose what I should do, is assign the default text, when the console is first opened, and before the WindowsTitle is changed, into a variable for later use in this function.

# Set Default Console Window Title
Function Set-WindowTitleDefault {
    $Host.UI.RawUI.WindowTitle = 'Administrator: Windows PowerShell'
}

The last function I’ll share today is called Get-PSRemotingSession and it allows me to see if anyone is actively using PowerShell Remoting on a specific computer, or computers. It’s basically a wrapper function for Get-WSManInstance (without having to remember the required parameters).

Function Get-PSRemotingSession([string[]]$ComputerName) {
    Foreach ($C in $ComputerName) {
        Get-WSManInstance -ComputerName $C -ResourceURI Shell -Enumerate | Select-Object -Property Owner,ClientIP
    }
}

That’s all I’ve got for today. I hope that some of these might have been helpful enough to incorporate into your profile. If there’s things you can’t live without in your profile, that you want to share, then comment below, or share them on Twitter.

Update: The last function I introduced, Get-PSRemotingSession, has been updated. Only returning the Owner and ClientIP was fine when I only ran it against a single computer. The problem, when I ran it against multiple computers, is that I didn’t know the name of the computer that had the remote session — it wasn’t included in the output. Therefore, I updated the function, as seen below, so that it’ll indicate the computer name. It can’t get the computer name as part of what’s returned from Get-WSManInstance (without resolving the ClientIP), but it can based on which computer it’s checking to begin with (the value in $C). Here’s the updated version:

Function Get-PSRemotingSession([string[]]$ComputerName) {
    Foreach ($C in $ComputerName) {
        Get-WSManInstance -ComputerName $C -ResourceURI Shell -Enumerate | Select-Object -Property @{N='ComputerName';E={$C}},Owner,ClientIP
    }
}

Twitter Reply – Rebel Doesn’t Mean Rebel to Everyone

Twitter Reply to: no link

I saw a recent Twitter #PowerShell post and while I wanted to respond to it on Twitter, I didn’t. I was opposed to what it said, but I didn’t feel it was my place to call anyone out in that fashion. That’s why there isn’t a link above, where they might’ve been otherwise.

The twitter post in which I’m referring indicated that a person was a “rebel” by not using an approved PowerShell verb. I saw the included :P, and that’s fine, but only if the author is joking about the whole thing — I didn’t get that they were.

To use an unapproved verb, especially while knowing you shouldn’t, is everything that PowerShell is trying to stay away from. Part of the success of PowerShell has been the consistency in which it’s been developed by Microsoft, and others. While you might consider yourself a rebel, I consider what you’re doing, a problem.

I will admit, there has been a time or two that I’ve struggled with the best option for my verb, but I’ve always found one. Here’s my recommendation if you are not satisfied with the list of approved verbs: Use an alias; don’t be a “rebel.”

Let’s say I have a function I want to invoke using the name Smack-Yourself, and it looks like this:

Function Smack-Yourself {
    Write-Output -Verbose "I've been smacked!"
}

I can tell you without looking; smack is not an approved verb. We’ll check if it exists anyway.

PS C:\> Get-Verb -Verb Smack
PS C:\>

Nope, this verb hasn’t (yet?) been approved by Microsoft.

Instead of using an unapproved verb, let’s give our function an approved verb and then make an alias we can use instead. There’s no best practice for aliases; name them whatever you want. As far as your function name, please stay consistent and follow the verb dash noun naming convention, using an approved verb.

Set-Alias -Name Smack-Yourself -Value Pop-Yourself

Function Pop-Yourself {
    Write-Output -Verbose "I've been smacked!"
}

In the example above, we’ve used Set-Alias to modify (or create) an alias, called Smack-Yourself. When run, this alias will ultimately execute the Pop-Yourself function, where Pop is an approved verb. Even if the approved verb you choose doesn’t perfectly align with the verb you wanted to use, you can use whatever you want, if you’re using an alias.

Determine if the Alias, or Function Name was Used

As a Windows PowerShell enthusiast, I am often thinking about PowerShell. Seems logical. Can I do this? What will happen if I do that? Why doesn’t this work!? Well, I had one of those thoughts recently. Can I determine if a function was called using an alias, or if it was called using the function name?

This thought occurred to me because of a change I considered adding to one of my functions. The idea was, that I wanted to prompt the user for confirmation to run a function (within the function), if an alias was used, and not prompt the user when the full function name was used. This lined up with the assumption that an alias could be accidentally entered more easily than the function name, and that we may want to take precautions when the alias was used.

My first consideration was to get the last command entered by the user, by using: (Get-History -Count 1).CommandLine. The problem with that “option,” is that the history isn’t updated until after the function has ended. This means that I wouldn’t know what was entered by the user while the function was running. Take a look at the example below. When I run the function Get-TMHistory the first time, nothing is displayed (in a fresh console), but something is displayed after the second run.

Function Get-TMHistory {
	Get-History -Count 1
}

PS C:\> Get-TMHistory
PS C:\> Get-TMHistory

  Id CommandLine
  -- -----------
   1 Get-TMHistory

I came up with a another idea. Let’s start by creating a new function called Get-TMHowCalled. In addition, we’ll need to create an alias for the function – let’s use ghc. I’ve included the New-Alias cmdlet’s -Force parameter in case there’s already an alias with that name. If there is, then New-Alias acts like Set-Alias, and updates the alias (instead of throwing an error). Note: This option could be problematic if it replaced ghc, and ghc was used for a different purpose.

New-Alias -Name ghc -Value Get-TMHowCalled -Force

Function Get-TMHowCalled {

}

The next thing to do is to construct the logic that will check and determine if the alias was used, or if the full function name was used. This is simple function: check, and echo what was entered by the user.

Function Get-TMHowCalled {
    If () {
        Write-Output -Verbose 'Alias was used.'
    } ElseIf () {
        Write-Output -Verbose 'Function name was used.'
    }
}

The secret here is the $MyInvocation automatic variable and its Line property. This stores what was entered, and so it can be used to determine how the function was called – by alias or by name. The best part, is that the variable is populated when the function is called and can, therefore, be queried inside the function. This variable can only be used in “scripts, functions, and script blocks.” You can read more about it using this command: Get-Help about_Automatic_Variables.

Function Get-TMHowCalled {
    If ($MyInvocation.Line -eq 'ghc') {
        Write-Output -Verbose 'Alias was used.'
    } ElseIf ($MyInvocation.Line -eq 'Get-TMHowCalled') {
        Write-Output -Verbose 'Function name was used.'
    }
}

Hope this proves to be helpful for someone. It might be for me.

Add CMD’s ver to PowerShell

One of the great things about Windows PowerShell is that it can run Windows native command line tools, such as ping, ipconfig, and others. There are times, however, when there are exceptions. While recently working in the console, I brainlessly entered ‘ver’ (without the quotes), and it didn’t return what I expected. Instead of printing ‘Microsoft Windows [Version 6.3.9600]’ to the console, it reported that ver wasn’t recognized.

PS C:\> ver
ver : The term 'ver' is not recognized as the name of a cmdlet, function, script file, or operable program. Check the
spelling of the name, or if a path was included, verify that the path is correct and try again.
At line:1 char:1
+ ver
+ ~~~
    + CategoryInfo          : ObjectNotFound: (ver:String) [], CommandNotFoundException
    + FullyQualifiedErrorId : CommandNotFoundException

While I wouldn’t recommend opening CMD to run the command, because seriously get out of that habit already, you can switch to CMD from inside the PowerShell console, as demonstrated below.

PS C:\> cmd
Microsoft Windows [Version 6.3.9600]
(c) 2013 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

C:\>ver

Microsoft Windows [Version 6.3.9600]

C:\>exit
PS C:\>

Still, this wasn’t quite as native as I wanted. For whatever reason, I wanted to type ver, and get the identical output I was used to seeing,… regardless of the fact that the ver output doesn’t really tell me much.

The first thing I did was launch the ISE and create an alias for ver. Keep in mind, that you may need to add -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue to the New-Alias cmdlet, if you run the script more than once inside the ISE. The problem here is that you’ll receive an error if you try and create an alias that is already being used. Either that, or you can add the -Force parameter and make New-Alias act like Set-Alias (and overwrite the alias even though it’s not really changing it).

New-Alias -Name ver -Value Get-TMVersion

Next, I constructed a function called Get-TMVersion that the alias ver would use. Inside the function, I created a single variable, $OS, and assigned it the results of a Get-CimInstance command. If for some reason you’re still using PowerShell 2.0, this can be replaced by the Get-WmiObject equivalent: Get-WmiObject -Class Win32_OperatingSystem.

Function Get-TMVersion {
    $OS = Get-CimInstance -ClassName Win32_OperatingSystem
}

Once I have this data stored in a variable, I can begin checking for a value in the variable, and then, building out my results to match the native Windows command. The If statement checks to see if the Name property of $OS begins with the string Microsoft Windows. Providing it does, it sets a second variable, $Version, as seen in the example below. Once that’s complete, it then echos a blank line, the $Version variable, and then echos a second blank line. At this point, $Version should be identical to the ver command’s standard output.

Function Get-TMVersion {
    $OS = Get-CimInstance -ClassName Win32_OperatingSystem
    If ($OS.Name -like 'Microsoft Windows*') {
        $Version = "Microsoft Windows [Version $($OS.Version)]"
    }
    Write-Output -Verbose `r`n$Version`r`n
}

Here’s the function in action.

PS C:\> ver

Microsoft Windows [Version 6.3.9600]

PS C:\>

Boring, but it works. I should note that this function would probably be best served to include some error checking, in case setting the $OS variable errors out. In addition, I suspect there are probably other ways to produce the same resul–… (pause, keyboard keys clicking) …ugh, here’s a couple variations of yet another, simpler way.

PS C:\> cmd /c ver

Microsoft Windows [Version 6.3.9600]
PS C:\> cmd /c ver;echo ''

Microsoft Windows [Version 6.3.9600]

PS C:\>

It seems I could have just dropped a tiny bit of text into my function and called it a day. If you’ve ever read anything else I’ve written and posted, then you may have noticed a pattern. I seem to do things the hard way, long before I figure out a simpler way. I like it that way, though. If anything, it keeps me thinking, and therefore, improving my PowerShell skills overall.

Function Get-TMVersion {
    cmd /c ver
    Write-Output -Verbose ''
}

about_Profiles

This post is the help rewrite for about_Profiles. While the help files for Windows PowerShell are invaluable, the idea behind a rewrite is so true beginners might even better understand the help file concepts. At times, some things discussed in the Windows PowerShell help file will not be included in a help rewrite. Therefore, it is always best to read the actual help file after reading this post. (PS3.0)

Once you start using your profile ($PROFILE), you’ll have a hard time not using it and not adding new things to it. When you have a profile (script), it runs each time you open a new Windows PowerShell session. My current profile does a number of things – it sets my location to the C:\ drive, sets various variables, set aliases, modifies the console’s window title, and creates several functions. Some of those functions allow me to connect remotely to Exchange servers, load the VMWare PowerCLI PSSnapin (without having to remember its name), use Wake-on-LAN to wake my home computer, and several others.

There are several different profiles based on the host and the user. To see your profile, type $PROFILE and press Enter in the console or Integrated-Scripting Environment (ISE). As seen in the example below, this will display the path to the profile. Line 1 is typed in the standard PowerShell console and Line 3 in the ISE.

PS C:\> $PROFILE
C:\Users\tommymaynard\Documents\WindowsPowerShell\Microsoft.PowerShell_profile.ps1
PS C:\> $PROFILE
C:\Users\tommymaynard\Documents\WindowsPowerShell\Microsoft.PowerShellISE_profile.ps1

There are more profiles than these two and they are active under different circumstances. To see all the profiles, pipe the $PROFILE variable to the Select-Object cmdlet with the wildcard character.

PS C:\> $PROFILE | Select-Object -Property *

AllUsersAllHosts       : C:\Windows\System32\WindowsPowerShell\v1.0\profile.ps1
AllUsersCurrentHost    : C:\Windows\System32\WindowsPowerShell\v1.0\Microsoft.PowerShell_profile.ps1
CurrentUserAllHosts    : C:\Users\tommymaynard\Documents\WindowsPowerShell\profile.ps1
CurrentUserCurrentHost : C:\Users\tommymaynard\Documents\WindowsPowerShell\Microsoft.PowerShell_profile.ps1
Length                 : 82

Based on the information on the left hand side, there are different profiles based on who is using what host. While it’s not recommended to modify the profiles in the System32 directory, you should be able to tell what these do. The one on line1 is run for any user, regardless of what host (console/ISE) they use. The second one on line 2 is for any user in the current host. The third is for the current user, me, in all the hosts, and the final one is for me in the current host. These last two are the one’s you can modify.

But just by having a path stored in $PROFILE, doesn’t actually mean the file, or profile, actually exists. Use the Test-Path cmdlet to determine if the file/profile exists.

PS C:\> Test-Path $PROFILE
False

If this returns False, then you do not have a profile and so it will need to be created. You can create this file but using the New-Item cmdlet.

PS C:\> New-Item -Type File -Path $PROFILE -Force

    Directory: C:\Users\tommymaynard\Documents\WindowsPowerShell

Mode                LastWriteTime     Length Name
----                -------------     ------ ----
-a---         8/20/2014  12:39 PM          0 Microsoft.PowerShell_profile.ps1

These two commands can be put together in an If-Else statement that will test for the file, and if not found, will create the file. Once you have a profile file created, you can open it up and start adding to it. Remember that every time you open the matching console, the profile script will run.

If (-not(Test-Path $PROFILE)) {
    New-Item -Type File -Path $PROFILE -Force
}

Here’s some quick examples of things that could be added to a profile. The first example  changes the prompt location from its default to the root of the C:\ drive.

Set-Location \

The next example sets aliases for c and gh. The first example, in line 1, will allow me to use the letter c to run the Clear-Host cmdlet and in line 2, will allow me to use the alias gh in place of typing out Get-Help.

Set-Alias -Name c -Value Clear-Host
Set-Alias -Name gh -Value Get-Help

These next example allow me to set variables inside my profile. This will allow me to use $DCs to return DC01, DC02, DC03, allow me to use $hosts to return the path of my hosts file, and allow me to return all my web and data servers by using the $AppServers variable. Noticed that $AppSevers is a mulit-dimentional array. Use $AppServers[0] to return the web servers and $AppServers[1] to return the data servers.

Set-Variable -Name DCs -Value 'DC01','DC02','DC03'
Set-Variable -Name hosts -Value "$env:SystemRoot\System32\drivers\etc\hosts"
Set-Variable -Name AppServers -Value @(('web01','web02','web03'),('data01','data02','data03'))

You can also create functions. This function allows me to type Add-VMC to load the VMware PSSnapin. For me, it’s easier to remember this short function name than remembering the PSSnapin name or having to type out Get-PSSnapin -Registered to find the name.

Function Add-VMC {
	Add-PSSnapin VMware.VimAutomation.Core
}

Start using your $PROFILE today and everything you can to help personalize your PowerShell experience. Keep in mind that profiles do not exist in remote sessions.

Learn More

This information, and more, is stored in the help file about_Profile that comes with Windows PowerShell. This information can be read by typing any of the commands below. The first example will display the help file in the Windows PowerShell console, the second example will open the full help in it’s own window, the third example will send the contents of the help file to the clipboard (so it can be pasted into Word, Notepad, etc.), and the fourth example will open the help file in Notepad.

PS C:\> Get-Help about_variables
PS C:\> Get-Help about_variables -ShowWindow
PS C:\> Get-Help about_variables| clip
PS C:\> Notepad $PSHOME\en-us\about_Variables.help.txt